stream

简介

  • stream是java8添加的一种新特性

  • Stream 使用一种类似用 SQL 语句从数据库查询数据的直观方式来提供一种对 Java 集合运算和表达的高阶抽象。

  • 处理流程如下:

    +--------------------+       +------+   +------+   +---+   +-------+
    | stream of elements +-----> |filter+-> |sorted+-> |map+-> |collect|
    +--------------------+       +------+   +------+   +---+   +-------+
    

方法

创建

  • 使用Collection下的 stream() 和 parallelStream() 方法
List<String> list = new ArrayList<>();
Stream<String> stream = list.stream(); //获取一个顺序流
Stream<String> parallelStream = list.parallelStream(); //获取一个并行流
  • 使用Arrays 中的 stream() 方法,将数组转成流
Integer[] nums = new Integer[10];
Stream<Integer> stream = Arrays.stream(nums);
  • 使用Stream中的静态方法:of()、iterate()、generate()
Stream<Integer> stream = Stream.of(1,2,3,4,5,6);

Stream<Integer> stream2 = Stream.iterate(0, (x) -> x + 2).limit(6);
stream2.forEach(System.out::println); // 0 2 4 6 8 10

Stream<Double> stream3 = Stream.generate(Math::random).limit(2);
stream3.forEach(System.out::println);
  • 使用 BufferedReader.lines() 方法,将每行内容转成流
BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new FileReader("F:\\test_stream.txt"));
Stream<String> lineStream = reader.lines();
lineStream.forEach(System.out::println);
  • 使用 Pattern.splitAsStream() 方法,将字符串分隔成流
Pattern pattern = Pattern.compile(",");
Stream<String> stringStream = pattern.splitAsStream("a,b,c,d");
stringStream.forEach(System.out::println);

过滤

filter:过滤流中的某些元素
limit(n):获取n个元素
skip(n):跳过n元素,配合limit(n)可实现分页
distinct:通过流中元素的 hashCode() 和 equals() 去除重复元素

Stream<Integer> stream = Stream.of(6, 4, 6, 7, 3, 9, 8, 10, 12, 14, 14);
 
Stream<Integer> newStream = stream.filter(s -> s > 5) //6 6 7 9 8 10 12 14 14
        .distinct() //6 7 9 8 10 12 14
        .skip(2) //9 8 10 12 14
        .limit(2); //9 8
newStream.forEach(System.out::println);

映射

  • map:接收一个函数作为参数,该函数会被应用到每个元素上,并将其映射成一个新的元素。
  • flatMap:接收一个函数作为参数,将流中的每个值都换成另一个流,然后把所有流连接成一个流。
List<String> list = Arrays.asList("a,b,c", "1,2,3");
 
//将每个元素转成一个新的且不带逗号的元素
Stream<String> s1 = list.stream().map(s -> s.replaceAll(",", ""));
s1.forEach(System.out::println); // abc  123
 
Stream<String> s3 = list.stream().flatMap(s -> {
    //将每个元素转换成一个stream
    String[] split = s.split(",");
    Stream<String> s2 = Arrays.stream(split);
    return s2;
});
s3.forEach(System.out::println); // a b c 1 2 3

排序

  • sorted():自然排序,流中元素需实现Comparable接口

  • sorted(Comparator com):定制排序,自定义Comparator排序器

List<String> list = Arrays.asList("aa", "ff", "dd");
//String 类自身已实现Compareable接口
list.stream().sorted().forEach(System.out::println);// aa dd ff
 
Student s1 = new Student("aa", 10);
Student s2 = new Student("bb", 20);
Student s3 = new Student("aa", 30);
Student s4 = new Student("dd", 40);
List<Student> studentList = Arrays.asList(s1, s2, s3, s4);
 
//自定义排序:先按姓名升序,姓名相同则按年龄升序
studentList.stream().sorted(
        (o1, o2) -> {
            if (o1.getName().equals(o2.getName())) {
                return o1.getAge() - o2.getAge();
            } else {
                return o1.getName().compareTo(o2.getName());
            }
        }
).forEach(System.out::println);

消费

peek:如同于map,能得到流中的每一个元素。但map接收的是一个Function表达式,有返回值;而peek接收的是Consumer表达式,没有返回值。

Student s1 = new Student("aa", 10);
Student s2 = new Student("bb", 20);
List<Student> studentList = Arrays.asList(s1, s2);
 
studentList.stream()
        .peek(o -> o.setAge(100))
        .forEach(System.out::println);   
 
//结果:
Student{name='aa', age=100}
Student{name='bb', age=100}            

匹配

  • allMatch:接收一个 Predicate 函数,当流中每个元素都符合该断言时才返回true,否则返回false
  • noneMatch:接收一个 Predicate 函数,当流中每个元素都不符合该断言时才返回true,否则返回false
  • anyMatch:接收一个 Predicate 函数,只要流中有一个元素满足该断言则返回true,否则返回false
  • findFirst:返回流中第一个元素
  • findAny:返回流中的任意元素
  • count:返回流中元素的总个数
  • max:返回流中元素最大值
  • min:返回流中元素最小值
List<Integer> list = Arrays.asList(1, 2, 3, 4, 5);
 
boolean allMatch = list.stream().allMatch(e -> e > 10); //false
boolean noneMatch = list.stream().noneMatch(e -> e > 10); //true
boolean anyMatch = list.stream().anyMatch(e -> e > 4);  //true
 
Integer findFirst = list.stream().findFirst().get(); //1
Integer findAny = list.stream().findAny().get(); //1
 
long count = list.stream().count(); //5
Integer max = list.stream().max(Integer::compareTo).get(); //5
Integer min = list.stream().min(Integer::compareTo).get(); //1

规约

//经过测试,当元素个数小于24时,并行时线程数等于元素个数,当大于等于24时,并行时线程数为16
List<Integer> list = Arrays.asList(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24);
 
Integer v = list.stream().reduce((x1, x2) -> x1 + x2).get();
System.out.println(v);   // 300
 
Integer v1 = list.stream().reduce(10, (x1, x2) -> x1 + x2);
System.out.println(v1);  //310
 
Integer v2 = list.stream().reduce(0,
        (x1, x2) -> {
            System.out.println("stream accumulator: x1:" + x1 + "  x2:" + x2);
            return x1 - x2;
        },
        (x1, x2) -> {
            System.out.println("stream combiner: x1:" + x1 + "  x2:" + x2);
            return x1 * x2;
        });
System.out.println(v2); // -300
 
Integer v3 = list.parallelStream().reduce(0,
        (x1, x2) -> {
            System.out.println("parallelStream accumulator: x1:" + x1 + "  x2:" + x2);
            return x1 - x2;
        },
        (x1, x2) -> {
            System.out.println("parallelStream combiner: x1:" + x1 + "  x2:" + x2);
            return x1 * x2;
        });
System.out.println(v3); //197474048

收集

Student s1 = new Student("aa", 10,1);
Student s2 = new Student("bb", 20,2);
Student s3 = new Student("cc", 10,3);
List<Student> list = Arrays.asList(s1, s2, s3);
 
//装成list
List<Integer> ageList = list.stream().map(Student::getAge).collect(Collectors.toList()); // [10, 20, 10]
 
//转成set
Set<Integer> ageSet = list.stream().map(Student::getAge).collect(Collectors.toSet()); // [20, 10]
 
//转成map,注:key不能相同,否则报错
Map<String, Integer> studentMap = list.stream().collect(Collectors.toMap(Student::getName, Student::getAge)); // {cc=10, bb=20, aa=10}
 
//字符串分隔符连接
String joinName = list.stream().map(Student::getName).collect(Collectors.joining(",", "(", ")")); // (aa,bb,cc)
 
//聚合操作
//1.学生总数
Long count = list.stream().collect(Collectors.counting()); // 3
//2.最大年龄 (最小的minBy同理)
Integer maxAge = list.stream().map(Student::getAge).collect(Collectors.maxBy(Integer::compare)).get(); // 20
//3.所有人的年龄
Integer sumAge = list.stream().collect(Collectors.summingInt(Student::getAge)); // 40
//4.平均年龄
Double averageAge = list.stream().collect(Collectors.averagingDouble(Student::getAge)); // 13.333333333333334
// 带上以上所有方法
DoubleSummaryStatistics statistics = list.stream().collect(Collectors.summarizingDouble(Student::getAge));
System.out.println("count:" + statistics.getCount() + ",max:" + statistics.getMax() + ",sum:" + statistics.getSum() + ",average:" + statistics.getAverage());
 
//分组
Map<Integer, List<Student>> ageMap = list.stream().collect(Collectors.groupingBy(Student::getAge));
//多重分组,先根据类型分再根据年龄分
Map<Integer, Map<Integer, List<Student>>> typeAgeMap = list.stream().collect(Collectors.groupingBy(Student::getType, Collectors.groupingBy(Student::getAge)));
 
//分区
//分成两部分,一部分大于10岁,一部分小于等于10岁
Map<Boolean, List<Student>> partMap = list.stream().collect(Collectors.partitioningBy(v -> v.getAge() > 10));
 
//规约
Integer allAge = list.stream().map(Student::getAge).collect(Collectors.reducing(Integer::sum)).get(); //40

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